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00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Thomas (RCT)18%0.82 [0.23-2.91]recov. time4850Improvement, RR [CI]TreatmentControlTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%Early treatment18%0.82 [0.23-2.91]0/480/5018% improvementZhang (RCT)50%0.50 [0.20-1.80]death6/2711/29Improvement, RR [CI]TreatmentControlPatel29%0.71 [0.43-1.14]death22/9626/80Kumari (RCT)36%0.64 [0.26-1.55]death7/7511/75JamaliMog.. (RCT)0%1.00 [0.22-4.56]death3/303/30Gao86%0.14 [0.03-0.72]death1/465/30Hamidi-Ala.. (RCT)44%0.56 [0.20-1.51]death5/409/40CT​1Al Sulaiman15%0.85 [0.61-1.12]death46/14259/142Hakamifard (RCT)46%0.54 [0.14-2.08]ICU3/385/34CT​1Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%Late treatment27%0.73 [0.59-0.92]93/494129/46027% improvementBehera10%0.90 [0.63-1.21]cases29/67157/305Improvement, RR [CI]TreatmentControlTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%PrEP10%0.90 [0.63-1.21]29/67157/30510% improvementAll studies21%0.79 [0.66-0.95]122/609286/81521% improvement10 vitamin C COVID-19 studiesc19vitaminc.com 6/19/211 CT: study uses combined treatmentTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 2.57 (p = 0.0051)Lower RiskIncreased Risk
 
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5/3
In Silico Malla et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.05.02.442358 (Preprint) Vitamin C inhibits SARS coronavirus-2 main protease essential for viral replication
Details   In Vitro study showing that vitamin C inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Authors note that the different clinical results may be explained in part by the widely varying dosages used, and they conclude that vitamin C and/or derivatives may become..
4/14
Late Hakamifard et al., Immunopathologia Persa, doi:10.34172/ipp.2021.xx (Peer Reviewed) ICU, ↓46.3%, p=0.46 The effect of vitamin E and vitamin C in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia; a randomized controlled clinical trial
Details   RCT with 38 patients treated with vitamin C and vitamin E, and 34 control patients, showing lower ICU admission with treatment, but not statistically significant.
4/2
Late Al Sulaiman et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-354711/v1 (Preprint) death, ↓14.9%, p=0.27 Ascorbic Acid as an Adjunctive Therapy in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19: A Multicenter Propensity Score Matched Study
Details   Retrospective 158 critically ill patients receiving vitamin C and propensity matched controls, showing mortality OR 0.77 [0.48-1.23], and statistically significantly lower thrombosis, OR 0.42 [0.18-0.94]. 1000mg of vitamin C was given dai..
3/8
Late Hamidi-Alamdari et al., Clinical and Translational Investigation, doi:10.24875/RIC.21000028 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓44.4%, p=0.38 Methylene blue for treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial, phase 2
Details   RCT 80 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, 40 treated with methylene blue + vitamin C + N-acetyl cysteine, showing lower mortality, shorter hospitalization, and significantly improved SpO2 and respiratory distress with treatment. ..
3/2
Early Hemilä et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-289381/v1 (meta analysis) meta-analysis Vitamin C may increase the recovery rate of outpatient cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 70%: reanalysis of the COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   Reanalysis of Thomas et al. showing that vitamin C increased the recovery rate by 70%, p = 0.025.
2/26
Late Gao et al., Aging, doi:10.18632/aging.202557 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓86.0%, p=0.04 The efficiency and safety of high-dose vitamin C in patients with COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study
Details   Retrospective 76 COVID-19 patients, 46 treated with intravenous high-dose vitamin C, showing lower mortality and improved oxygen requirements with treatment. Dosage was 6g intravenous infusion per 12hr on the first day, and 6g once for th..
2/12
Early Thomas et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369 (Peer Reviewed) recov. time, ↓17.9%, p=0.38 Effect of High-Dose Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation vs Usual Care on Symptom Length and Reduction Among Ambulatory Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   Small 214 low-risk outpatient RCT showing non-statistically significant faster recovery with zinc and with vitamin C. NCT04342728. A secondary analysis concludes that vitamin C increases recovery rate by 71% (p = 0.036) [1]. See also [2].
2/1
Late Zhao et al., Ann. Palliat. Med., doi:10.21037/apm-20-1387 (Peer Reviewed) Beneficial aspects of high dose intravenous vitamin C on patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in severe condition: a retrospective case series study
Details   Retrospective case study of 12 severe/critical COVID-19 patients finding that high dose IV vitamin C improved inflammatory response, immune and organ function. There was no control group.
1/27
Late Xing et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2021.113927 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin C supplementation is necessary for patients with coronavirus disease: An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry finding
Details   Prospective study with 31 COVID-19 patients and 60 controls reporting on a new method to assess plasma vitamin C concentrations. Vitamin C was deficient (11.4µmol/l vs. 52µmol/l for healthy controls), and returned to a normal range (76µmo..
1/9
Late JamaliMoghadamSiahkali et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-139942/v1 (Preprint) death, 0.0%, p=1.00 Safety and Effectiveness of High-Dose Vitamin C in Patients with COVID-19; A Randomized Controlled open-label Clinical Trial
Details   Small late stage RCT for the addition of vitamin C to HCQ and lopinavir/ritonavir, with 30 treatment and 30 control patients, finding a significant reduction in temperature and a significant improvement in oxygenation after 3 days in the ..
12/7
Review Holford et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123760 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Vitamin C—An Adjunctive Therapy for Respiratory Infection, Sepsis and COVID-19
Details   Review of vitamin C use for respiratory infections including COVID-19 and the mechanisms of action. Authors note that evidence to date indicates oral vitamin C (2–8 g/day) may reduce the incidence and duration of respiratory infections, a..
11/30
Late Kumari et al., Cureus 12(11): e11779, doi:10.7759/cureus.11779 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓36.4%, p=0.45 The Role of Vitamin C as Adjuvant Therapy in COVID-19
Details   RCT 150 hospitalized patients in Pakistan showing 26% faster recovery, p < 0.0001. 36% lower mortality, not statistically significant due to the small number of events. Dosage was 50 mg/kg/day of intravenous vitamin C.
11/3
PrEP Behera et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247163 (preprint 11/3) (Peer Reviewed) cases, ↓9.6%, p=0.58 Role of ivermectin in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers in India: A matched case-control study
Details   Retrospective matched case-control prophylaxis study for HCQ, ivermectin, and vitamin C with 372 healthcare workers, showing lower COVID-19 incidence for all treatments, with statistical significance reached for ivermectin. HCQ OR 0.56, ..
10/1
Late Patel et al., Chest Infections, doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.08.322 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓29.5%, p=0.18 The significance of oral ascorbic acid in patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 176 hospitalized patients, 96 treated with oral vitamin C (from 500mg to 1500mg daily), showing lower mortality with treatment.
9/8
Levels Arvinte et al., Med. Drug Discov, doi:10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100064 (Peer Reviewed) Serum Levels of Vitamin C and Vitamin D in a Cohort of Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients of a North American Community Hospital Intensive Care Unit in May 2020: A Pilot Study
Details   Pilot study with 21 ICU patients finding low serum levels of vitamin C and vitamin D in most patients. Older age and low vitamin C level appeared to be co-dependent risk factors for mortality.
8/26
Levels Chiscano-Camón et al., Critical Care, doi:10.1186/s13054-020-03249-y (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin C levels in patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome
Details   Small study of 18 COVID-19 ARDS patients showing that vitamin C levels were very low - 17 patients had undetectable levels and one had a low level (2.4 mg/L).
8/10
Late Zhang et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-52778/v2 (Preprint) death, ↓50.0%, p=0.31 Pilot Trial of High-dose vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients
Details   Small RCT for high dose vitamin C for ICU patients showing reduced (but not statistically significant) mortality. Dosage was 12g of vitamin C/50ml every 12 hours for 7 days at a rate of 12ml/hour.
8/1
Late Hiedra et al., Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, doi:10.1080/14787210.2020.1794819 (Peer Reviewed) The use of IV vitamin C for patients with COVID-19: a case series
Details   Case study of 17 patients receiving IV vitamin C for COVID-19, finding a significant decrease in inflammatory markers, including ferritin and D-dimer, and a trend to decreasing FiO2 requirements, after vitamin C administration. There was ..
7/25
Review Feyaerts et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.110948 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Vitamin C as prophylaxis and adjunctive medical treatment for COVID-19?
Details   Review concluding that there is clear evidence that vitamin C in high doses can reduce interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 mediators. Authors suggest a relatively low dose as prophylaxis, and in cases of severe COVID-19, an (intravenous) high-..
5/27
In Silico Kumar et al., VirusDisease, doi:10.1007/s13337-020-00643-6 (preprint 5/27) (Peer Reviewed) In silico virtual screening-based study of nutraceuticals predicts the therapeutic potentials of folic acid and its derivatives against COVID-19
Details   In Silico analysis finding that magnesium ascorbate, a form of Vitamin C, was found to be the top compound among 106 nutraceuticals for binding to Mpro of SARS-CoV-2.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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