COVID-19 studies:  C19 studies: C19:  IvermectinIVM Vitamin DV.D PXPX FLVFLV PVP-IPI HC QHC Q BHBH CICI BLBL NZNZ COCO BUBU More..
  OutcomesOutcomes (RCT)0.82[0.23-2.91]recov. time4850RRCITreatmentControlTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%Early treatment0.82[0.23-2.91]0/480/5018% improvementZhang (RCT)0.50[0.20-1.80]death6/2711/29RRCITreatmentControlKumari (RCT)0.64[0.26-1.55]death7/7511/75JamaliMog.. (RCT)1.00[0.22-4.56]death3/303/30Sulaimen0.85[0.61-1.12]death46/14259/142Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%Late treatment0.79[0.60-1.03]62/27484/27621% improvementBehera0.90[0.63-1.21]cases29/67157/305RRCITreatmentControlTau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%PrEP0.90[0.63-1.21]29/67157/30510% improvementAll studies0.84[0.69-1.02]91/389241/63116% improvement6 vitamin C COVID-19 4/21/21Tau​2 = 0.00; I​2 = 0.0%; Z = 1.75 (p = 0.04)Lower RiskIncreased Risk
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Late Sulaimen et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) death, ↓14.9%, p=0.27 Ascorbic Acid as an Adjunctive Therapy in Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19: A Multicenter Propensity Score Matched Study
Retrospective 158 critically ill patients receiving vitamin C and propensity matched controls, showing mortality OR 0.77 [0.48-1.23], and statistically significantly lower thrombosis, OR 0.42 [0.18-0.94]. 1000mg of vitamin C was given dai..
Early Hemilä et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (meta analysis) meta-analysis Vitamin C may increase the recovery rate of outpatient cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 70%: reanalysis of the COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial
Reanalysis of Thomas et al. showing that vitamin C increased the recovery rate by 70%, p = 0.025.
Early Thomas et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369 (Peer Reviewed) recov. time, ↓17.9%, p=0.38 Effect of High-Dose Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation vs Usual Care on Symptom Length and Reduction Among Ambulatory Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial
Small 214 low-risk outpatient RCT showing non-statistically significant faster recovery with zinc and with vitamin C. NCT04342728. A secondary analysis concludes that vitamin C increases recovery rate by 71% (p = 0.036) [1]. See also [2].
Late Zhao et al., Ann. Palliat. Med., doi:10.21037/apm-20-1387 (Peer Reviewed) Beneficial aspects of high dose intravenous vitamin C on patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in severe condition: a retrospective case series study
Retrospective case study of 12 severe/critical COVID-19 patients finding that high dose IV vitamin C improved inflammatory response, immune and organ function. There was no control group.
Late Xing et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2021.113927 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin C supplementation is necessary for patients with coronavirus disease: An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry finding
Prospective study with 31 COVID-19 patients and 60 controls reporting on a new method to assess plasma vitamin C concentrations. Vitamin C was deficient (11.4µmol/l vs. 52µmol/l for healthy controls), and returned to a normal range (76µmo..
Late JamaliMoghadamSiahkali et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) death, 0.0%, p=1.00 Safety and Effectiveness of High-Dose Vitamin C in Patients with COVID-19; A Randomized Controlled open-label Clinical Trial
Small late stage RCT for the addition of vitamin C to HCQ and lopinavir/ritonavir, with 30 treatment and 30 control patients, finding a significant reduction in temperature and a significant improvement in oxygenation after 3 days in the ..
Review Holford et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123760 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Vitamin C—An Adjunctive Therapy for Respiratory Infection, Sepsis and COVID-19
Review of vitamin C use for respiratory infections including COVID-19 and the mechanisms of action. Authors note that evidence to date indicates oral vitamin C (2–8 g/day) may reduce the incidence and duration of respiratory infections, a..
Late Kumari et al., Cureus 12(11): e11779, doi:10.7759/cureus.11779 (Peer Reviewed) death, ↓36.4%, p=0.45 The Role of Vitamin C as Adjuvant Therapy in COVID-19
RCT 150 hospitalized patients in Pakistan showing 26% faster recovery, p < 0.0001. 36% lower mortality, not statistically significant due to the small number of events. Dosage was 50 mg/kg/day of intravenous vitamin C.
PrEP Behera et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247163 (preprint 11/3) (Peer Reviewed) cases, ↓9.6%, p=0.58 Role of ivermectin in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers in India: A matched case-control study
Retrospective matched case-control prophylaxis study for HCQ, ivermectin, and vitamin C with 372 healthcare workers, showing lower COVID-19 incidence for all treatments, with statistical significance reached for ivermectin. HCQ OR 0.56, ..
Levels Arvinte et al., Med. Drug Discov, doi:10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100064 (Peer Reviewed) Serum Levels of Vitamin C and Vitamin D in a Cohort of Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients of a North American Community Hospital Intensive Care Unit in May 2020: A Pilot Study
Pilot study with 21 ICU patients finding low serum levels of vitamin C and vitamin D in most patients. Older age and low vitamin C level appeared to be co-dependent risk factors for mortality.
Levels Chiscano-Camón et al., Critical Care, doi:10.1186/s13054-020-03249-y (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin C levels in patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome
Small study of 18 COVID-19 ARDS patients showing that vitamin C levels were very low - 17 patients had undetectable levels and one had a low level (2.4 mg/L).
Late Zhang et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/ (Preprint) death, ↓50.0%, p=0.31 Pilot Trial of High-dose vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients
Small RCT for high dose vitamin C for ICU patients showing reduced (but not statistically significant) mortality. Dosage was 12g of vitamin C/50ml every 12 hours for 7 days at a rate of 12ml/hour.
Late Hiedra et al., Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, doi:10.1080/14787210.2020.1794819 (Peer Reviewed) The use of IV vitamin C for patients with COVID-19: a case series
Case study of 17 patients receiving IV vitamin C for COVID-19, finding a significant decrease in inflammatory markers, including ferritin and D-dimer, and a trend to decreasing FiO2 requirements, after vitamin C administration. There was ..
Review Feyaerts et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.110948 (Review) (Peer Reviewed) review Vitamin C as prophylaxis and adjunctive medical treatment for COVID-19?
Review concluding that there is clear evidence that vitamin C in high doses can reduce interleukin-6 and endothelin-1 mediators. Authors suggest a relatively low dose as prophylaxis, and in cases of severe COVID-19, an (intravenous) high-..
In Silico Kumar et al., VirusDisease, doi:10.1007/s13337-020-00643-6 (preprint 5/27) (Peer Reviewed) In silico virtual screening-based study of nutraceuticals predicts the therapeutic potentials of folic acid and its derivatives against COVID-19
In Silico analysis finding that magnesium ascorbate, a form of Vitamin C, was found to be the top compound among 106 nutraceuticals for binding to Mpro of SARS-CoV-2.
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