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Vitamin C study #20   Meta Analysis
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Case -3% Imp. Relative Risk, 95% CI Holt: Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a popula.. c19vitaminc.com/holtc.html Favors vitamin C Favors control
3/30 Prophylaxis study
Holt et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.27.21254452 (Preprint)
Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
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Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistical significance was not reached for any of these. Results are subject to confounding, with only the vitamin D result fully adjusted. NCT04330599. COVIDENCE UK.
risk of case, 2.9% higher, RR 1.03, p = 0.86, treatment 49 of 1,580 (3.1%), control 397 of 13,647 (2.9%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, minimally adjusted, group sizes approximated.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: significant unadjusted confounding possible.
Holt et al., 3/30/2021, prospective, United Kingdom, Europe, preprint, 31 authors.
Contact: a.martineau@qmul.ac.uk.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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