Small late stage RCT for the addition of vitamin C to HCQ and lopinavir/ritonavir, with 30 treatment and 30 control patients, finding a significant reduction in temperature and a significant improvement in oxygenation after 3 days in the vitamin C group. However, hospitalization time was longer and there was no significant difference in mortality.
JamaliMoghadamSiahkali et al., 1/9/2021, Randomized Controlled Trial, Iran, Middle East, preprint, 17 authors.
risk of death, no change, RR 1.00, p = 1.00, treatment 3 of 30 (10.0%), control 3 of 30 (10.0%).
risk of mechanical ventilation, 25.0% higher, RR 1.25, p = 1.00, treatment 5 of 30 (16.7%), control 4 of 30 (13.3%).
hospitalization time, 30.8% higher, relative time 1.31, p = 0.03, treatment 30, control 30.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.