Retrospective database analysis of 3,219 hospitalized patients in the USA. Very different results in the time period analysis (Table S2), and results significantly different to other studies for the same medications (e.g., heparin OR 3.06 [2.44-3.83]) suggest significant confounding by indication and confounding by time.
risk of death, 32.2% higher, RR 1.32, p = 0.01, treatment 157 of 794 (19.8%), control 359 of 2,425 (14.8%), adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, logistic regression.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta
substantial unadjusted confounding by indication likely, substantial time varying confounding likely due to declining usage over the early stages of the pandemic when overall treatment protocols improved dramatically.
Mulhem et al., 4/7/2021, retrospective, database analysis, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.